核心提示：事实信息题和词汇题在 托福阅读 十大题型中，是占据比重最大的两种题型。一般来说，针对每篇阅读而言，前者要考察3-5题，而后者更是每篇要考察4-6题。就每篇阅读14道题而言，这两种题型就占据了大半壁江山。因此，可以毫不夸张地说，得词汇题和事实信息题的
1. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements about aquifers in deserts is true? (TPO 12 Water in the Desert)
2. According to paragraph 7, why would a social group use shunning? (TPO 13 Types of Social Groups)
3. Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about painting in Europe? (TPO 4 Cave Art in Europe)
本题干的定位词即是painting in Europe, 符合提问方式3。
Paragraph 3: The subjects of the paintings are mostly animals. The paintings rest on bare walls, with no backdrops or environmental trappings. Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. This theory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings. But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared. Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing. (TPO 4: Cave Art in Europe)
According to paragraph 3, scholars explained chips in the painted figures of animals by proposing that______
○ Upper Paleolithic artists used marks to record the animals they had seen.
○ The paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals for hunting.
○ The artists had removed rough spots on the cave walls.
○ Upper Paleolithic people used the paintings to increase their luck at hunting.
Paragraph 6: All this applies, of course, only to an adult leatherback. Hatchlings are simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it can switch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach their immense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhaps their rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm. (TPO 15: A Warm-blooded Turtle)
11. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?
○ They lack the countercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.
○ Their rate of growth is slower than that of other sea turtles.
○ They lose heat easily even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems.
○ They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughout their hatchling stage
1. 读题干，划出定位词young leatherback turtles
2. 根据定位词回原文进行定位，在原文中并不能找到原文原词。因此，考虑有可能是近义词，进而发现young leatherback turtles的同义替换词hatchlings。
Paragraph 6: Groundwater is stored in the pore spaces and joints of rocks and unconsolidated (unsolidified) sediments or in the openings widened through fractures and weathering. The water-saturated rock or sediment is known as an "aquifer". Because they are porous, sedimentary rocks, such as sandstones and conglomerates, are important potential sources of groundwater. Large quantities of water may also be stored in lime stones when joints and cracks have been enlarged to form cavities. Most limestone and sandstone aquifers are deep and extensive but may contain ground waters that are not being recharged. Most shallow aquifers in sand and gravel deposits produce lower yields, but they can be rapidly recharged. Some deep aquifers are known as "fossil waters. The term "fossil" describes water that has been present for several thousand years. These aquifers became saturated more than 10,000 years ago and are no longer being recharged. (TPO 12: Water in the Desert)
8. According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements about aquifers in deserts is true?
○ Water from limestone and sandstone aquifers is generally better to drink than water from sand and gravel aquifers
○ Sand and gravel aquifers tend to contain less groundwater than limestone or sandstone aquifers
○ Groundwater in deep aquifers is more likely to be recharged than groundwater in shallow aquifers
○ Sedimentary rocks, because they are porous, are not capable of storing large amounts of groundwater
Paragraph 4: Nomadism also subjects pastoralist communities to strict rules of portability. If you are constantly on the move, you cannot afford to accumulate large material surpluses. Such rules limit variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households (though they may also encourage a taste for portable goods of high value such as silks or jewelry). So, by and large, nomadism implies a high degree of self-sufficiency and inhibits the appearance of an extensive division of labor. Inequalities of wealth and rank certainly exist, and have probably existed in most pastoralist societies, but except in periods of military conquest, they are normally too slight to generate the stable, hereditary hierarchies that are usually implied by the use of the term class. Inequalities of gender have also existed in pastoralist societies, but they seem to have been softened by the absence of steep hierarchies of wealth in most communities, and also by the requirement that women acquire most of the skills of men, including, often, their military skills. (TPO 14: Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia)
9. According to paragraph 4, the fact that pastoralist communities are subject to “strict rules of portability” encourages such communities to
○ relocate less frequently than they would otherwise
○ have households that are more or less equal in wealth
○ become self-sufficient in the manufacture of silk and jewelry
○ share large material surpluses with neighboring communities
定位句：Such rules limit variations in accumulated material goods between pastoralist households. 大致意思说：“这样的条例会限制不同游牧家庭之间所收集的产品的差别”。
选项A谈到relocate定居，不符合该句话；B选项more or less equal in wealth就等同于limit variations in accumulated material goods; C选项self-sufficient自满自足的，不符合原文；D选项share large material surplus共享剩余产品资料，不符合原文。
Paragraph 1: Petroleum, consisting of crude oil and natural gas, seems to originate from organic matter in marine sediment. Microscopic organisms settle to the seafloor and accumulate in marine mud. The organic matter may partially decompose, using up the dissolved oxygen in the sediment. As soon as the oxygen is gone, decay stops and the remaining organic matter is preserved.
2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true about petroleum formation?
○ Microscopic organisms that live in mud produce crude oil and natural gas.
○ Large amounts of oxygen are needed for petroleum formation to begin.
○ Petroleum is produced when organic material in sediments combines with decaying marine organisms.
○ Petroleum formation appears to begin in marine sediments where organic matter is present.
综上所述，可以言简意赅地说事实信息题主要考察考生的两种能力：定位 & 同义转换。朗阁海外考试研究中心的专家认为考生可以沿着这两个方向去备考，另外建议广大考生先学习词汇题和句子简化题，然后再学习事实信息题。