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您所在的位置:济南市朗阁外语培训学校 > 托福阅读培训 > 新托福直接事实题应对指南
新托福直接事实题应对指南
新闻文章排行榜>> 丨2014-06-23 作者:济南朗阁 点击数:

核心提示:直接事实题(Factual Information Questions)是新托福每次必考题型,而且每次题量较多,通常每篇文章3-6个左右。下面,朗阁 托福教学 名师为您详解托福直接事实题。 问题形式 朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,这种题型要求考生们识别出文章明确阐述的事实信

        直接事实题(Factual Information Questions)是新托福每次必考题型,而且每次题量较多,通常每篇文章3-6个左右。下面,朗阁托福教学名师为您详解托福直接事实题。

 

问题形式

朗阁海外考试研究中心分析认为,这种题型要求考生们识别出文章明确阐述的事实信息。这些事实信息问题主要集中于事实、细节、定义或者作者阐述的其他信息。这种题型一般要求考生辨识文章某一部分提到的具体信息,不会问及整篇文章的主旨。通常情况下,相关信息可能是一句话或两句话。

 

这种题目的提问方式通常为:

☆ According to the passage, which/ what/ why/how/who/where/when….

☆ The author’s description of X mentions which of the following?

☆ According to the paragraph, X occurred because …

等等。

 

解题步骤

  1. 看题目,找关键词
  2. 带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息
  3. 看选项,找到和原文对应的改写/同义替换。

 

注意:

  1. 主要考察考生的定位能力
  2. 此种题型量大,但难度不大
  3. 做题过程中要排除那些错误选项,错误的选项通常为

☻重复文章中的信息,但并没有回答问题

☻错误表达文章中的信息或观点

☻与文章中观点不符

☻与文章无关或者文章中没有被提到。

 

另外朗阁专家建议考生在做题过程中要巧用一些特定的表达方式(即关系词),因为他们可以帮助考生们理解句子与句子之间及段落之间各个观点的关系。

 

illustrate      for example         next                   such

               For instance         to illustrate            such as

 

Give reasons   as a result of       because of             one reason is

                because            due to                  since

 

show result     accordingly         consequently          therefore

                 as a result          otherwise              thus

 

compare        both              like                  similarly

                 equally …          the same           similar to

contrast      although          instead                   rather

               conversely        nevertheless             unlike

               however           on the contrary         whereas

               in contrast         on the other hand       while

 

add           also          finally                      moreover

               another      first, second, third…       not only … but also

               as well as      furthermore              too

 

limit          although         except for               however

               but               even though            yet

 

emphasize     certainly          indeed          most importantly

                clearly            in fact          surely

 

下面我们通过几个例子来示范这种题目的答题步骤及方法。

 

It should be obvious that cetaceans--- whales, porpoises, and dolphins--- are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales lookes like. Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

 

In paragraph 1, what does the author say about the presence of a blowhole in cetaceans?

○  It clearly indicates that cetaceans are mammals.

○  It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals.

○  It is the main difference between cetaceans and land-dwelling mammals.

○  It cannot yield clues about the origins of cetaceans.

解题步骤:首先我们读题目,确定关键词为“a blowhole in cetaceans”;接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals”;然后读选项,找到和原文对应的内容的改写为“It cannot conceal the fact that cetaceans are mammals”, 因此正确答案为第二个选项。

 

The fossil consists of a complete skull of an archaeocyte, an extinct group of ancestors of modern cetaceans. Although limited to a skull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans. The skull is cetacean-like but its jawbones lack the enlarged space that is filled with fat or oil and used for receiving underwater sound in modern whales. Pakicetus probably detected sound through the ear opening as in land mammals. The skull also lacks a blowhole, another cetacean adaptation for diving. Other features, however, show experts that Pakicetus is a transitional form between a group of extinct flesh-eating mammals, the mesonychids, and cetaceans. It has been suggested that Pakicetus fed on fish in shallow water and was not yet adapted for life in the open ocean. It probably bred and give birth on land.

 

Pakicetus and modern cetaceans have similar

○  hearing structures

○  adaptation for living

○  skull shapes

○  breeding locations

解题步骤:首先我们读题目,确定关键词为“Pakicetus”和“similar”;接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“Although limited to a skull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans. The skull is cetacean-like…”;然后读选项,找到和原文对应的内容的改写为“skull shapes”, 因此正确答案为第三个选项。

 

Another major discovery was made in Egypt in 1989. several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethy Sea and now exposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hint leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foof-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.

 

The hind leg of Basilosaurus was a significant find because it showed that Basilosaurus

○  lived later than Ambulocetus natans

○  lived at the same time as Pkicetus

○  was able to swim well

○  could not have walked on land

解题步骤:首先我们读题目,确定关键词为“The hind leg”;接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“a complete hint leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foof-long Basilosaurus on land”;然后读选项,找到和原文对应的内容的改写为“could not have walked on land”, 因此正确答案为第四个选项。

 

Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water. The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration. Water absorption is greatly reduced, consequently runoff is increased, resulting in accelerated erosion rates. The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.

 

According to the 3rd paragraph, the loss of natural vegetation has which of the following consequences for soil?

○  Increased stony content

○  Reduced water absorption

○  Increased numbers of spaces in the soil

○  Reduced water runoff

解题步骤:首先我们读题目,确定关键词为“the loss of natural vegetation” 和“consequence for soil”;接下来带着关键词在文章中定位相关信息为“the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil’s ability to absorb substantial quantities of water”;然后读选项,找到和原文对应的内容的替换为“Reduced water absorption”, 因此正确答案为第二个选项。

 

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