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您所在的位置:济南市朗阁外语培训学校 > 托福阅读培训 > 新托福阅读动物类话题词汇及长句
新托福阅读动物类话题词汇及长句
新闻文章排行榜>> 丨2014-06-07 作者:济南朗阁 点击数:

核心提示:新托福阅读热门动物类话题如何进行解析呢?朗阁名师带领“烤鸭”们来解读托福阅读动物类话题一系列的词汇及长句。

新托福阅读热门动物类话题如何进行解析呢?青岛朗阁托福名师带领“烤鸭”们来解读托福阅读动物类话题一系列的词汇及长句。
文章标题 The Cambrian Explosion
所属话题 生命科学类之动物类
文章体裁 科技说明文
文章结构 现象解释式
难度系数 文章难度★★★★      题目难度:★★★
各题型数量 词汇题(4题)  直接事实题(2题) 推论题(1题)
句子简化题(1题) 修辞目的题(2题) 否定排除题(2题)
插入文本题(1题) 摘要题(1题)
高频话题词
总结 geologic 地质的,地质上的
origin 起源,来源,渊源
originate 发源,起源,开始
cell 细胞
extinct 灭绝的,绝种的
evolve 进化,发展
diversification 多样化,多元化
explosion 爆炸,激增
multicellular 多细胞的
fossil 化石
evolutionary 进化的,演化的
fossilize 变成化石,石化
fossilization 化石化
discourage 阻止,阻碍
decomposition 分解,腐败,解体
formation 形成,构成
consist 包含
exclusively 完全地,独有地,排外地
distribution 分布
ancestor 祖先
assign 归于,归属
unique 唯一的,独特的
arise 出现
descendant 后代,子孙
marine 海洋的,海生的,海产的
unassignable 无法分配的
predator 捕食者,食肉动物
previously 以前,先前,之前
extinction 灭绝
involve 涉及
zoologist 动物学家
ecological 生态的
virtually 几乎
competition 竞争
sequence 顺序,次序
await 等待,期待
长难句 Conditions that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals include very rapid covering by sediments that create an environment that discourages decomposition.
分析:主句为“Conditions include very rapid covering by sediments”,“that promote fossilization of soft-bodied animals”为定语从句,做Conditions的定语,关系词为that; “that create an environment that discourages decomposition”也为定语从句,做sediments的定语,关系词为that。

At one time, the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned to various modern animal groups, but most paleontologists now agree that all tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.
分析:本句为并列句,由连词but连接;“the animals present in these fossil beds were assigned to various modern animal groups”的主句为“the animals were assigned to various modern animal groups”“present in these fossil beds”为后置定语;“most paleontologists now agree that all tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.”的主句为“most paleontologists now agree that…”,其中“that all tommotian fossils represent unique body forms that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups.”为that引导的宾语从句,做agree的宾语;“that arose in the early Cambrian period and disappeared before the end of the period, leaving no descendants in modern animal groups”为定语从句,做unique body forms的定语,关系词为that;“leaving no descendants in modern animal groups”为现在分词短语,在此定语从句中做伴随状语。

These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups plus about 20 other animal body forms that are so different from any other modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups.
分析:该句主句为“These fossil beds provide evidence of about 32 modern animal groups plus about 20 other animal body forms”;“that are so different from any other modern animals that they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups”为定语从句,做20 other animal body forms的定语,关系词为that;此定语从句为so…that结构,“they cannot be assigned to any one of the modern groups”为结果状语从句。
生命科学类之其他话题 昆虫(蚂蚁信息素、蚂蚁交流、蜜蜂交流、蝴蝶多样性)
鸟类(始祖鸟、人工孵化、鸟类换毛、欺骗战术、筑巢、迁徙、鸣叫)
水生动物(浮游生物、鳟鱼、鱼类体液、海豚)
动物习性(认知能力、哺育后代、工具使用、保温机制、生物钟、拟态行为、摄食行为、蝙蝠和寄生虫、捕食最优化)
灭绝与进化(史前人类活动导致巨型动物灭绝、物种灭绝、动物体型进化、物种适应性)
植物(菌类、苔藓、植物的积极防御和消极防御)
动植物关系(动植物间的互利与共生)
其他生命(菌类、生命起源)
生物学原理(物种分类方法,物种适应性)

文章标题 Powering the Industrial Revolution
所属话题 社会科学类之历史类(工业化)
文章体裁 科技说明文
文章结构 原因/结果式
难度系数 文章难度★★★        题目难度:★★★★
各题型数量 词汇题(4题)  直接事实题(4题) 否定排除题(1题)
句子简化题(1题) 修辞目的题(1题) 插入文本题(1题)
摘要题(1题)
高频话题词
总结 dramatic 引人注目的
continuous 连续的,持续的
abound 丰富,盛产
desirable 理想的
reliable 可靠的,可依赖的
drought 干旱,旱季
machinery 机器,机械
movable 活动的,可移动的
constant 不断的,持续的,永恒的
exploit 开拓,开采,利用
vastly 极大地
embody 表现,体现
perfect 使…完美
devise 想出,设计
convert 转变,改变
motion 运动
transform 改变
inefficient 效率低的,无效率的
liberate 解放
eliminate 消除,去除
availability 可利用性,可得到的东西
illumination 照明
rival 竞争,对立,比得上
accustom 使习惯
motive 动机的,发动的
retain 保持
virtual 实质上的,事实上的
monopoly 垄断
multiply 增加
长难句 Only the last of these was suited at all to the continuous operating of machines and although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills, it had one great disadvantage: stream flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks, whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons.
分析:本句为并列句,“Only the last of these was suited at all to the continuous operating of machines”和“although waterpower abounded in Lancashire and Scotland and ran grain mills as well as textile mills, it had one great disadvantage:…”并列,由and连接。冒号后面部分“stream flowed where nature intended them to, and water-driven factories had to be located on their banks, whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons.”解释前文,解释说明waterpower的缺点;其中“where nature intended them to”为where引导的地点状语从句;“whether or not the location was desirable for other reasons”为whether引导的让步状语从句。

The final step came when steam was introduced into the cylinder to drive the piston backward as well as forward, thereby increasing the speed of the engine and cutting its fuel consumption.
分析:本句主句为“The final step came”。“when steam was introduced into the cylinder to drive the piston backward as well as forward, thereby increasing the speed of the engine and cutting its fuel consumption.”为when引导的时间状语从句;其中“thereby increasing the speed of the engine and cutting its fuel consumption”为现在分词短语作结果状语。

Iron manufacturers, which had starved for fuel while depending on charcoal, also benefited from ever-increasing supplies of coal.
分析:此句主句为“Iron manufacturers also benefited from ever-increasing supplies of coal”。“which had starved for fuel while depending on charcoal”为定语从句,做iron manufacturers的定语,关系词为which;其中“while depending on charcoal”为现在分词短语做时间状语。
社会科学之
历史类的
其他话题 城市历史(工业化,城市化,交通等)
农业历史(农民,水利建设,农业发展,水稻种植)
原住民及其文明(移民与原住居民融合,印加文明,印第安人)
行业历史(工作时间变化,早期工匠,早期报纸,经济发展史,工具机械化生产,贸易的形成)
经济发展与工业革命(工业革命,农业经济转向工业经济)
历史事件(人类发现美洲大陆等)
其他文明及历史(墨西哥文艺革命,中国,日本,埃及)
 

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